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Madagascar

Flag of Madagascar

Background Information

  •  Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896, but regained its independence in 1960.
  • During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule.
  • In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency.
  • The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country.
  • In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner.

Overview

Capital Antananarivo
Currency Malagasy Ariary (MGA)
Major Ethnic Groups                                                                                                                                


 
Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo),
Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava),
French,
Indian,
Creole,
Comoran
Main Languages French (official), Malagasy (official)
Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E
Area:

total: 587,040 sq km land: 581,540 sq km water: 5,500 sq k

Coastline: 4,828 km
Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in sout
Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 5.03% permanent crops: 1.02% other: 93.95% (2005)
Natural hazards: periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel.
   

Media overview:

Newspapers: 7 daily papers and a number of weeklies
Radio broadcast stations:                                                     AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001) - 7 stations in total Radios: 3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions: 325,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .mg
Internet hosts: 9,734 (2007)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 110,000 (2006)

Press:

  • Newspapers such as The Madagascar Matin, the Midi-Madagasikara and the Hebdo-Publicite accept advertisements. Madagascar Matin, Midi-Madagasikara are read by a large percentage of the population.
  • Magazines are read by limited number of people in the political, economic and commercial spheres of readership. They represent about 5 to 10 % of the population.

Advertising expenditures devoted to the various media segments:

Population

Population 19,448,815 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.9% (male 4,297,985/female 4,243,369) 15-64 years: 53% (male 5,117,874/female 5,190,032) 65 years and over: 3.1% (male 270,411/female 329,144) (2007 est.)
Nationality: noun: Malagasy (singular and plural) adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups: Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions: indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:                                                                                                                 English (official), French (official), Malagasy (official)
Population growth rate: 3.008% (2007 est.)
Birth rate: 38.6 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate: 8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, malaria, and plague water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Literacy: Age 15 and over that can read or write
Total Population 80 %
Male 88%
Female 73%

Sovereignty

Government Republic
Constitution 19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal System                                                                                             based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Chief of State President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
Head of Government Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 January 2007)
Elections President elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
Cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
Prime Minister Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA

Banking And Business

Overview                                                                                                                     Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization.
GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,000 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 27.3% industry: 15.8% services: 56.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 7.3 million (2000)
Population below poverty line: 50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9% highest 10%: 36.6% (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed): 26.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries: meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Exports - commodities: coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Economic aid - recipient: $929.2 million (2005)
Electricity Production: 984 million kWh (2004)
Production by Source: fossil fuel: 36.1%, hydro: 63.9%, nuclear: 0%, other: 0% (2001)
Consumption: 915.1 million kWh (2004)
Exports: 0 kWh (2004)
Imports: 0 kWh (2004)
Transportation Railways:
total: 854 km
narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)

Roadways:
Total: 49,827 km
Paved: 5,780 km
Unpaved: 44,047 km (1999)
Air Transport 116 (2006)
Paved Runways:
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Economy Economic aid - recipient: $354 million (2001)
Major trading partners France, US, China, Iran, Mauritius, Germany, Italy, Hong Kong, UK

Media overview

Newspapers: 7 daily papers and a number of weeklies
Radio broadcast stations:                                                     AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001) - 7 stations in total Radios: 3.05 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 3 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Televisions: 325,000 (1997)
Internet country code: .mg
Internet hosts: 9,734 (2007)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 2 (2000)
Internet users: 110,000 (2006)

Press

  • Newspapers such as The Madagascar Matin, the Midi-Madagasikara and the Hebdo-Publicite accept advertisements. Madagascar Matin, Midi-Madagasikara are read by a large percentage of the population.
  • Magazines are read by limited number of people in the political, economic and commercial spheres of readership. They represent about 5 to 10 % of the population.

Schooling And Holidays

Public Holidays                                    







 
1 Jan New Year's Day
24 Mar Easter Monday
29 Mar Commemoration of the 1947 Rebellion
1 May Labour Day
1 May Ascension Day
26 Jun Independence Day
15 Aug Assumption Day
1 Nov All Saints' Day
25 Dec Christmas Day

Images

Media

Tv Stations

  • Radio-Television Malagasy
  • Radio-Television Analamanga
  • Madagascar TV

Radio Stations

  • Radio Lazan Iarivo
  • Radio Korail
  • Radio Antsiva
  • Malagasy Nation Radio (RNM)
  • Radio Don Bosco
  • Radio Feon’ny Merina
  • Radio Tsioka Vao

Magazines

  • Madagascar Magazine
  • Mad
  • Jureco
  • Revise de l'Ocean Indiea
  • Dans les Media Demain
  • Bulletin de la Fiv,
  • Bulletin de la Chambre de Commerce,
  • D'Commerce,
  • d'Industrie, et D'Agriculture
The following Magazines accept advertising:        





 
Revise de l'Ocean Indiea,
Dans les Media Demain,
Bulletin de la Fiv,
Bulletin de la Chambre de Commerce,
D'Commerce,
d'Industrie, et D'Agriculture

Newspapers

  • Madagascar Matin - French
  • Midi-Madagasikara - Malagasy
  • The Madagascar Tribune - English
  • L’Express - French
  • Maresaka
  • Basy – Vaovao
  • Imongo

Outdoor Media

Country Data
News