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Nigeria

Flag of Nigeria

Background Information

  • British influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century
  • A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960.
  • Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed.
  • The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy.
  • In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions.
  • Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence.
  • The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

Overview

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:                                             32deg 00’ N, 5deg 00’ W
Area:

total: 923,768 sq km land: 910,768 sq km water: 13,000 sq km

Land boundaries: total: 4,047 km border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline: 853 km
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use: arable land: 33.02% permanent crops: 3.14% other: 63.84% (2005)
Note: The Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

Population

Population 135,031,164 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.2% (male 28,726,380/female 28,301,729) 15-64 years: 54.7% (male 37,543,678/female 36,277,038) 65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,987,521/female 2,194,818) (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseases:                                                                                                 degree of risk: very high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vector borne disease: malaria and yellow fever respiratory disease
Ethnic groups: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10
Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Population growth rate: 2.379% (2007 est.)
Birth rate: 40.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate: 16.68 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.4% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.6 million (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 310,000 (2003 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.44 years male: 46.83 years female: 48.07 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.45 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Literacy: Age 15 and over that can read or write
Total Population 68%
Male 75.7%
Female 60.6%

Sovereignty

Government federal republic
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria conventional short form: Nigeria
Capital: name: Abuja
Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day),
1 October (1960)
Constitution: new constitution adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal system:                                                         based on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Banking And Business

Overview                                                                                                                                                                                                                                





 

Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration.

Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food.

GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,200 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17.6% industry: 53.1% services: 29.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force: 50.13 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70% industry: 10% services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 5.8% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2007 est.
Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Oil - exports: 2.141 million bbl/day (2006)
Oil - imports: 167,900 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Currency (code): naira (NGN)

Challenges in the Nigeria Media:

  • Information hoarding : e.g. Ad spend by media
  • Data assessment problem.
  • Inability to swiftly embrace changes – finance & equipment
  • Unsustainable circulation claims – e.g. due to high cost of print material.
  • Poor quality print: Not all has quality colour reproduction.
  • Unstructured rate increases.
  • Non delivery of COSTS on time
  • Still traditional way of booking contracts – when the world has gone on-line
  • Epileptic power supply thus increasing overhead cost.
  • Audience fragmentation (Radio & TV), due to increasing deregulation and influx of remote control devices.
  • Debt situation: Insist on prepayment
  • Issues in outdoor: Rate differentials, Regulations (LASSA, FCDA)

Schooling And Holidays

New Year’s Day January 1
Id-el Kabir January
Good Friday April
Easter Monday April
Id-el Maulud April
May (Workers) day         May 1
Democracy day May 29
Id-el Fitri October
Independence day October 1
Christmas December 25        
Boxing Day December 26

Images

Media

Tv Stations

  • Television – 6.9 million (1997)
  • 183 TV stations
    • 1 Federal network service Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) with 97 Federal-owned stations
    • 32 State-owned stations
    • 14 Private stations
    • 2 Direct Satellite Stations (DBS)
    • 35 Cable Stations (using MMDS Channels)
    • 3 Cable (Direct-To-Home) TV station DSTV, CTL, HITV. Offering about 50 international channels.
    • New UHF Chan 65 test-transmitting since Sept 2006

Radio Stations

  • Radio – 23.5 million (1997)
  • 119 Radio stations (83 AM, 36 FM, 11 shortwave)
    • 1 Federal Network –(FRCN)
    • 39 Licensed Federal FRCN stations
    • 1 Satellite Station (Ray Power 106.5 FM)
    • 61 Stated owned stations [on AM (Grass Roots) & FM band]
    • 12 Private-owned stations

Magazines

  • Weekly & Monthly
  • News Magazines/ Entertainment
  • Business
  • Sports
  • Professional
  • Foreign/international titles
  • Romance
  • Children/Teenage

Newspapers

Over 90 titles
  • Dailies
  • Midweek/Weekend
  • Sports/Business

Outdoor Media

Outdoor
  • 124 Outdoor firms managing over 21,150 boards pan-Nigeria.
  • Internet hosts: 1968 (2007)
  • Internet service providers: 11 (2000)
  • Other Sources:
    1. National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Handbook, 3rd Edtn, Abuja (2004), pp. 12a – 52a
    2. Outdoor Advertising Companies Association of Nigeria (OAAN) - August 2006
Country Data
News