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Rwanda

Flag of Rwanda

Background Information

  • In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in the genocide of roughly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. The Tutsi rebels defeated the Hutu regime and ended the killing in July 1994, but approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and the former Zaire.
  • Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF tried in 1990.
  • Despite substantial international assistance and political reforms - including Rwanda's first local elections in March 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in August and September 2003 - the country continues to struggle to boost investment and agricultural output, and ethnic reconciliation is complicated by the real and perceived Tutsi political dominance.
  • Kigali's increasing centralization and intolerance of dissent, the nagging Hutu extremist insurgency across the border, and Rwandan involvement in two wars in recent years in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to hinder Rwanda's efforts to escape its bloody legacy.

Overview

Capital Kigali
Currency Rwandan Franc (RWF)
Major Ethnic Groups                       Hutu (Bantu) 84%,
Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%,
Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Main Languages Kinyarwanda (official)
universal Bantu vernacular,
French (official),
English (official),
Kiswahili (Swahili) used in commercial centers

Population

Religious Breakdown Roman Catholic 56.5%,
Protestant 26%,
Adventist 11.1%,
Muslim 4.6%,
indigenous beliefs 0.1%,
none 1.7% (2001)
Population

9,907,509

HIVAIDS Adult Prevalence Rate: 5.1% (2003 est.)
People Living with HIV/AIDS: 250,000 (2003 est.)
Labour Force 4.6 million (2000)
Labour Force by Occupation:                              Agriculture: 90%
Industry and Services: 10%
Industries:: Cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Literacy: Age 15 and over that can read or write
Total Population 70.4%
Male 76.3%
Female 64.7%

Sovereignty

Government Republic; presidential, multiparty system
Constitution New constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003
Legal System Based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Chief of State President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000)
Head of Government                                                    Prime Minister Bernard MAKUZA (since 8 March 2000)
 
Elections President elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 25 August 2003 (next to be held in 2010)
Cabinet Council of Ministers appointed by the president
Prime Minister Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Banking And Business

Economy Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture. It is the most densely populated country in Africa and is landlocked with few natural resources and minimal industry. Primary foreign exchange earners are coffee and tea.
GDP Purchasing Power Parity: $13.7 billion (2006 est.)
Official Exchange Rate : $1.968 billion (2006 est.)
Real Growth Rate: 5.8% (2006 est.)
Per Capita (PPP): $1,600 (2006 est.)
Composition By Sector                                                                                              Agriculture: 39.4%
Industry: 23.3%
Services: 37.3% (2006 est.)
Industries Cement, Agricultural products, Small-scale beverages, Soap, Furniture, Shoes, Plastic goods, Textiles, Cigarettes
Electricity Production: 93 million kWh (2004)
Consumption: 196.5 million kWh (2004)
Exports: 10 million kWh (2004)
Iimports: 120 million kWh (2004)
Transportation Roadways:
total: 14,008 km
paved: 2,662 km
unpaved: 11,346 km (2004)
Air Transport 9 (2006)
With Paved Runways: total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Exports $135.4 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Commodities: Coffee, Tea, Hides, Tin Or
Partners: China 10.2%, Germany 9.6%, US 4.3% (2006)
Imports $390.4 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Partners: Kenya 19.7%, Germany 7.8%, Uganda 6.9%, Belgium 5% (2006)

Schooling And Holidays

Public Holidays             










 
1 Jan New Year's Day
28 Jan Democracy Day
7 Apr Genocide Memorial Day
1 May Labour Day
1 Jul Independence Day
4 Jul Liberation Day
1 Aug Harvest Festival
15 Aug Assumption
8 Sep Culture Day
25 Sep Republic Day
25 Dec Christmas Day
26 Dec Boxing Day

Images

Media

Tv Stations

 Local representative however maintains that TV is not a popular choice for advertising, with less than 10 local clients advertising on Television. These include some local banks, MTN and certain Insurance companies. These ads are basically clustered around the News.

Radio Stations

  • 3 Radio Stations
  • Rwanda National Radio (Public) rank 1
    80% market share
  • Radio 10 (Private) rank 2
  • Radio Flash (Private) rank 3
  • Listener demographic
    Rwanda National (16-45years)
    Radio 10 (16-45years
    Radio Flash (12-25years)
  • Language – English, French, Kinyarwanda.

Magazines

Newspapers

  • English (New Times)
    weekly has biggest circulation nationwide.
    (Circulation figures to be confirmed)
  • French Paper
  • 4 local papers
    Of these the government owned “Enviro” also has a big circulation due to the fact that they publish government tenders each week.
  • Also Ugandan newspapers the Daily, the Monitor and New vision circulate in Kigali.

Outdoor Media

Country Data
News